Gender Pay Gap Report

What is the Gender Pay Gap report?

From 6 April 2017 organisations with more than 250 employees were required by the Government Equalities Office to publish gender pay data on the following basis:

  • Gender pay gap (mean and median averages)
  • Gender bonus gap (mean and median averages)
  • Proportion of men and women receiving bonuses
  • Proportion of men and women in each quartile of the organisation’s pay structure

It is important to state from the outset that a gender pay gap is not the same as equal pay. A gender pay gap is a measure of the difference between the average salaries of male and female employees across an organisation, whereas equal pay refers to the legal requirement for employers to pay male and female employees the same for undertaking the same or similar work, Therefore, it is possible for an organisation to have a gender pay gap despite it being fully compliant with its equal pay responsibilities.

The University of Winchester is committed to ensuring that all its staff, irrespective of their gender, have an equal opportunity to fulfil their career aspirations during their time here. Indeed our commitment to gender equality was recognised when we became one of only a small minority of higher education institutions to achieve the Gender Equality Charter Mark awarded by the Equality Challenge Unit in 2014. This award recognised the steps we had put in place to promote gender equality in the workplace.

2017

Gender Pay Gap Reporting 2017

Difference in mean hourly rate of pay:   

13.8%

 

Difference in median hourly rate of pay:

22.0%

 

 

 

 

Difference in mean bonus pay:

50.7%

 

Difference in median bonus pay:

25.0%

 

 

 

 

 

Female

Male

Proportion of employees receiving bonus pay:

1.5%

1.6%

     

Proportion of employees quartile pay bands:

Upper

46.5%

53.5%

Upper Middle

61.2%

38.8%

Lower Middle

67.7%

32.3%

Lower

70.7%

29.3%

The headline figure which attracts media attention is the difference in the mean hourly rate of pay. This is the figure generally quoted when an organisation’s gender pay gap is stated. For the University of Winchester the figure is 13.8%.

To put this into context, the Universities & Colleges Employers Association report that in 2016 the mean gender pay gap across the higher education sector was 14.1%. More broadly within the UK, the Office of National Statistics reports that the current mean gender pay gap is 17.3%.

The median pay gap for the University of Winchester is higher, at 22.0%. It is calculated by ordering the hourly rate of pay for all male employees from lowest to highest and identifying the midpoint hourly rate of pay, doing the same exercise for all female employees, then calculating the percentage difference between these two midpoint figures. As a point of comparison the median pay gap in the higher education sector in 2016 was 14.8% and 18.1% in the wider UK economy.

The main reason we can identify for our median pay gap being higher than our mean pay gap is that three of the four highest paid employees are female and this has a significant impact in making the mean hourly rate of pay for female employees higher than it would otherwise be. The methodology for calculating the median hourly rate of pay is such that these salaries have a negligible impact on the median rate.

Whilst the statutory reporting duty also requires organisations to report their gender pay gap on bonus pay this is a far less relevant statistic for the University of Winchester than the hourly rate of pay as bonuses are not an integral part of our employee remuneration practices. Bonus payments, in the form of an honoraria payment for an exceptional contribution or achievement were paid to only 15 of our 981 staff in the year of reference. Our pay gap statistics for bonuses are not meaningful as they are based on such low numbers. One exceptionally large honorarium payment made to a male employee in exceptional circumstance has had a disproportionate impact on the mean bonus pay gap figure.

The final set of data on the attached data sheet shows the gender distribution in each of the four quartile pay bands.  The upper quartile pay band is the only quartile where the percentage of male employees exceeds the percentage of female employees.

62.2% of the University’s employees are female and 37.8% are male. The University operates a pay grade structure where all salaried jobs (other than a small number of senior management roles) are allocated to one of nine pay grades by reference to a job evaluation system. Almost 70% of employees in the lowest five pay grades are female, whereas only 38.8% of employees in the highest two pay grades are female. It is these two statistics which most clearly illustrate why we have a gender pay gap. Female employees are over-represented in the lower pay grades and under-represented in the two highest pay grades.

Part time working is one key factor in explaining our gender pay gap. 52,6% of our female employees are part-time compared to only 27% of our male employees. The biggest concentration of part-time workers are on our lowest five pay grades. 52.6% of employees on these grades are part-time. This is in stark contrast to our two highest grades where only 26.5% of employees are part-time. What these figures show is a strong correlation between female employees and part-time working, coupled with a strong concentration of part-time jobs on the lower pay grades. The critical impact of part-time jobs on the size of our gender pay gap is very evident when one considers that if our gender pay gap were to be calculated solely by reference to our full-time employees the figures would reduce dramatically to 1.4% at the mean and 2.9% at the median in favour of male employees.

Looking Forward

We will make strident efforts to eliminate our gender pay gap, but we recognise that this will take time. It remains the case that in the UK it is predominantly women who take primary responsibility for child care. Unless and until this societal norm changes women will continue to be the dominant gender in part-time jobs, which tend to be lower-paid roles. Therefore, to some extent it is the pace at which this societal norm weakens which will make the critical difference in our efforts to narrow and ultimately eliminate the gender pay gap.

However, we are not complacent and we recognise that we also need to take positive steps now to make inroads on the over-representation of female employees in our lower pay grades and the under-representation of female employees in our highest two pay grades. We wish to encourage our female employees to fulfil their career aspirations and achieve their potential. We are unusual as a university in having a senior management team which is 75% female, so role models for female career success are evident to all. Year on year we offer development sessions specifically for our female academic staff on achieving their career aspirations where they hear first-hand from women occupying senior roles here how they succeeded in their careers. The Vice- Chancellor also offers application based intensive training to all academics and professional services staff on her Futures Programme, now in its third year. We strive to achieve a gender balance in this programme, but as it is application based this limits our ability to do that. However, the participant rate has been strongly in favour of women for every year it has run to date.

We are committed to taking steps to address any barriers we identify to female career progression which are within our ability to influence. We hold meetings between Human Resources and our two trade unions to review employment statistics to help identify the issues.

Most of our roles in the highest two pay grades (grades 9 and 10) are senior academic roles such as Reader, Senior Fellow and Professor. Each year we hold a promotions round for academic staff, inviting applications for these roles. This year we will include a statement in the communication to staff inviting applications that we particularly welcome applications from female staff as they are under-represented in these grades. Similarly, when we advertise roles on lowest five pay grades (grades 2-5) we will include a statement in the advert that we particularly welcome male applicants as they are under-represented in jobs at these grade levels.

Finally, we will include within the training we provide to staff participating in the recruitment and selection of staff an awareness of the importance of ensuring that commencing salaries offered to new appointees are objectively justified. An analysis of commencing salaries offered indicates that male applicants may overall be more vocal in influencing the commencing salary offered than female applicants. Panel chairs need to be able to demonstrate an objective justification for offering salaries above the minimum point of the grade range.