Gender Pay Gap Report

What is the Gender Pay Gap report?

From 6 April 2017 organisations with more than 250 employees were required by the Government Equalities Office to publish annually gender pay data on the following basis:

  • Gender pay gap (mean and median averages)
  • Gender bonus gap (mean and median averages)
  • Proportion of men and women receiving bonuses
  • Proportion of men and women in each quartile of the organisation’s pay structure

All the data relates to the year ending 31st March 2018. This is the second gender pay gap report published by the new statutory requirement since its introduction in 2017.

It is important to state from the outset that a gender pay gap is not the same as equal pay. A gender pay gap is a measure of the difference between the average salaries of male and female employees across an organisation, whereas equal pay refers to the legal requirement for employers to pay male and female employees the same for undertaking the same or similar work, Therefore, it is possible for an organisation to have a gender pay gap despite it being fully compliant with its equal pay responsibilities.

The University of Winchester is committed to ensuring that all its staff, irrespective of their gender, have an equal opportunity to fulfil their career aspirations during their time here. Indeed our commitment to gender equality was recognised when we became one of only a small minority of higher education institutions to achieve the Gender Equality Charter Mark awarded by the Equality Challenge Unit in 2014. This award recognised the steps we had put in place to promote gender equality in the workplace.

The 2018 report shows that the university still has a gender pay gap in favour of male employees, but that the size of this pay gap has reduced significantly over the year since our initial pay gap report. We are committed as an organisation to identifying and implementing practical steps to reduce our pay gap further still in the future.

2018

Gender Pay Gap Reporting 2018

Difference in mean hourly rate of pay:   

11.7%

 

Difference in median hourly rate of pay:

16.2%

 

 

 

 

Difference in mean bonus pay:

25.7%

 

Difference in median bonus pay:

29.8%

 

 

 

 

 

Female

Male

Proportion of employees receiving bonus pay:

1.4%

1.0%

     

Proportion of employees quartile pay bands:

Upper

47.6%

52.4%

Upper Middle

60.6%

39.4%

Lower Middle

65.0%

35.0%

Lower

68.2%

31.8%


For the University of Winchester the mean gender pay gap figure for 2018 is 11.7%, down from 13.8% the previous year.

To put this into context, the Universities & Colleges Employers Association report that in 2016 the mean gender pay gap across the higher education sector was 14.1%. More broadly within the UK, the Office of National Statistics reports that the current mean gender pay gap is 17.3%.

The median pay gap for the University of Winchester is higher than the figure for the mean pay gap, at 16.2%. However, this figure has fallen significantly from 22.0% in the previous year. It is calculated by ordering the hourly rate of pay for all male employees from lowest to highest and identifying the midpoint hourly rate of pay, doing the same exercise for all female employees, then calculating the percentage difference between these two midpoint figures. As a point of comparison, according to the Office for National Statistics data, the median gender pay gap in the higher education sector in 2017 was 14.% and 18.% in the wider UK economy.

The main reason we can identify for our median pay gap being higher than our median pay gap is that three of the four highest paid employees are female and this has a significant impact in making the mean hourly rate of pay for female employees higher than it would otherwise be. The methodology for calculating the median hourly rate of pay is such that these salaries have a negligible impact on the median rate.

Whilst the statutory reporting duty also requires organisations to report their gender pay gap on bonus pay this is a far less relevant statistic for the University of Winchester than the hourly rate of pay as bonuses are not an integral part of our employee remuneration practices. Bonus payments, in the form of an honoraria payment for an exceptional contribution or achievement were paid to only 12 of our 973 staff in the year of reference. Our pay gap statistics for bonuses are not very meaningful as they are based on such low numbers. Nonetheless the mean pay gap in bonus payments in favour of male employees fell from 50.7% to 25.7%, whereas the median pay gap in bonus payments increased from 25.0% to 29.8%.

The final set of data on the attached data sheet shows the gender distribution in each of the four quartile pay bands. The upper quartile pay band is the only quartile where the percentage of male employees exceeds the percentage of female employees.
60.4% of the University’s employees are female and 39.6% are male. The University operates a pay grade structure where all salaried jobs (other than a small number of senior management roles) are allocated to one of nine pay grades by reference to a job evaluation system. Female employees are over-represented across the pay grades, with the exception of the two highest grades where they are under-represented.

As a consequence of the gender imbalance across the University’s grade structure female employees are over-represented in the lower pay quartile and under-represented in the highest pay quartile. It is this gender imbalance in the highest and lowest pay quartiles which most clearly illustrates why we have a gender pay gap.

Part time working is one key factor in explaining our gender pay gap. 50.2% of our female employees are part-time compared to only 28.1% of our male employees. The biggest concentration of part-time workers are on our lowest five pay grades. 50.6% of employees on these grades are part-time. This is in stark contrast to our two highest grades where only 20.3% of employees are part-time. What these figures show is a strong correlation between female employees and part-time working, coupled with a strong concentration of part-time jobs on the lower pay grades. This indicates the key impact of part-time jobs on the size of our gender pay gap.

2017

Gender Pay Gap Reporting 2017

Difference in mean hourly rate of pay:   

13.8%

 

Difference in median hourly rate of pay:

22.0%

 

 

 

 

Difference in mean bonus pay:

50.7%

 

Difference in median bonus pay:

25.0%

 

 

 

 

 

Female

Male

Proportion of employees receiving bonus pay:

1.5%

1.6%

     

Proportion of employees quartile pay bands:

Upper

46.5%

53.5%

Upper Middle

61.2%

38.8%

Lower Middle

67.7%

32.3%

Lower

70.7%

29.3%

 

Looking Forward

Whilst we are encouraged by the progress we have made over the last year in narrowing our gender pay gap, we will continue to make strident efforts to eliminate it, but we recognise that this will take time. It remains the case that in the UK it is predominantly women who take primary responsibility for child care. Unless and until this societal norm changes women will continue to be the dominant gender in part-time jobs, which tend to be lower-paid roles. Therefore, to some extent it is the pace at which this societal norm weakens which will make the critical difference in our further efforts to narrow and ultimately eliminate the gender pay gap.

We wish to encourage our female employees to fulfil their career aspirations and achieve their potential. We are unusual as a university in having a senior management team which is 75% female, so role models for female career success are evident to all. Year on year we offer development sessions specifically for our female academic staff on achieving their career aspirations where they hear first-hand from women occupying senior roles here how they succeeded in their careers. The Vice- Chancellor also offers application based intensive training to all academics and professional services staff on her Futures Programme, now in its fourth year. We strive to achieve a gender balance in this programme, but as it is application based this limits our ability to do that. However, the participant rate has been strongly in favour of women for every year it has run to date.

We are committed to taking steps to address any barriers we identify to female career progression which are within our ability to influence. We will shortly be holding a meeting between Human Resources and our two trade unions to review employment statistics and consider steps we can take to further reduce our gender pay gap.

Most of our roles in the highest two pay grades (grades 9 and 10) are senior academic roles such as Reader, Senior Fellow and Professor. Each year we hold a promotions round for academic staff, inviting applications for these roles. This year we will again include a statement in the communication to staff inviting applications that we particularly welcome applications from female staff as they are under-represented in these grades. Similarly, when we advertise roles on lowest five pay grades (grades 2-6) we will continue our practice of including a statement in the advert that we particularly welcome male applicants as they are under-represented in jobs at these grade levels.

Finally, we will continue to include within the training we provide to staff participating in the recruitment and selection of staff an awareness of the importance of ensuring that commencing salaries offered to new appointees are objectively justified. A previous analysis of commencing salaries offered indicated that male applicants may overall be more vocal in influencing the commencing salary offered than female applicants. Panel chairs need to be able to demonstrate an objective justification for offering salaries above the minimum point of the grade range to ensure equitable treatment for both genders.